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Russia is the largest state in the world with a territory of 17 million square kilometers (33 times that of France) and represents, with 142 million inhabitants (mainly located in major cities of the European part of the country), the ninth market the world. Russia is a federal republic consisting of 83 federal subjects.

Russia has hydrocarbon resources (first world producer of oil, the second natural gas) and other raw materials (coal, gold, nickel & cobalt, diamond, wood ...) considerable, constituting the bulk of exports of goods (70 %). Excluding hydrocarbons, the main industrial specializations of Russia are directly inherited from the Soviet military-industrial complex (metallurgy, space, nuclear weapons). The service sectors (telecommunications, finance, distribution), however, experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade. The priority of economic policy is to accelerate the diversification of the economy. The infrastructure network is facing extensive rehabilitation needs and requires heavy investments (airports, trains, roads, highways ...). A public program of development of transport infrastructure has been adopted for the period 2008-2030.